Friday, July 12, 2013

Colorful mushrooms

The role of fungi in nature and in the human economy can hardly be overestimated. Fungi are present in all biological niches - in water and on land, in the soil and on various other substrates.Very large biological and ecological diversity of fungi. This is one of the largest and most diverse groups of living organisms, which has become an integral part of all aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. According to the current estimates, the world exists from 100 to 250,000, and by some estimates up to 1.5 million species of fungi.

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Mlechnik blue (Lactarius indigo). Fairly common type of fungus grows in the eastern part of North America, East Asia and Central America. It grows on the ground in both deciduous and coniferous forests. The color varies from dark blue in fresh mushrooms to a pale blue-gray of old. Milk, which highlights the fungus if it is cut or broken, too blue. Cap is 5-15 cm, leg - 2-8 cm in height and 1-2.5 cm in thickness. Edible mushroom and sold in rural markets in Mexico, Guatemala and China. Panellyus kind Panellus stipticus. A common view is growing in Asia, Australia, Europe and North America. It grows in groups on logs, stumps and trunks of deciduous trees, especially on oaks, beeches and birches. This is one of the bioluminescent mushroom species, although this species of fungi of the regions of the Pacific Ocean North America, no. Drozhalka orange (Tremella mesenterica). This fungus usually grows on dead trees, but also to the newly fallen branches. Gelatinous orange-yellow body of the fungus (up to 7.5 cm in diameter) has a winding surface, which in the rain becomes sticky and slippery. The fungus grows in the cracks of the bark, appearing in the rain. After several days of rain it dries and turns into a thin film or wrinkled mass capable of newly regenerated after rain. This fungus is commonly found in mixed forests and distributed in temperate and tropical regions, including Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, North and South America. Mushroom is edible, although it is considered tasteless. This fungus produces carbohydrates that have value for research.Rodotus (Rhodotus palmatus). This fungus - the only member of the genus in the family Physalacriaceae. Not very common. The fungus collected in eastern North America, North Africa, Europe and Asia. In Europe, the number of fungi falling rapidly, so rodotusa brought in the Red book. Usually grows on decaying logs and stumps of trees hard. Mature mushrooms differ pinkish color and the characteristic "venoobraznoy" surface. Klavariya pale brown (Clavaria zollingeri). Widespread species of fungi. He has a tube-shaped purple or pinkish-lavender body, growing to 10 inches tall and 7 inches wide. The tips of the fragile and thin branches usually rounded and brownish. This saprobity species of mushroom, it absorbs nutrients by breaking down organic matter. Usually grows on the ground. Zvezdovik sacciform (Geastrum saccatum). It grows in North America and Europe on rotting trees.Mushroom pickers find it inedible due to its roller coaster of taste. Fairly common type, peak picking is at the end of the summer. It is believed that the hole on the outer layer of the body has a star-shaped mushroom picking due to calcium oxalate crystals in front of the opening. In Brazil, the fungus is called "Star of the earth". Trutovik Scale (Polyporus squamosus). Widespread species of fungus growing in North America, Australia, Asia and Europe. It causes white rot on the hardwood. Alternative name of the fungus - the seat of Dryads - refers to the Greek mythology and the Dryads, who supposedly could ride these mushrooms. Aseroe rubra. The so-called sea anemone and widely recognizable due to its unpleasant smell of rot and starfish-shaped. Growing in the gardens of the forest floor and in the grassy areas, like the red star, covered with brownish mucus, and has a white leg.Attracts flies. mushroom coral (Clavulinopsis corallinorosacea). The fungus is so called because of the similarity with sea corals. These mushrooms have a bright color, mostly orange, yellow or red. Usually they grow older lesah.odni coral saprotrophic fungi and other symbiotic or parasitic. Raincoat Brown (Lycoperdon umbrinum).This type of fungus is growing in China, Europe and North America. These mushrooms have an open cap with spores. Instead, the arguments appear inside the body of the ball. Ripening, spores form Hleb in the center of the body, which has a characteristic color and texture. Tsezarsky mushroom (Amanita caesarea). Very valuable edible fungus, which grows in southern Europe and North America. For the first time this fungus is described by Giovanni Antonio Scopoli in 1772. His loved the rulers of the Roman Empire. It has a distinctive orange cap, yellow spore-bearing plate and the leg. This fungus is very much appreciated by the Romans, who called it Boletus.Mycena interrupta. This fungus grows in Australia, New Zealand, Chile and New Caledonia. In Australia, growing in Victoria, Tasmania, New South Wales and South Australia, and in Queensland, but only at The National Park Lamington. Pileus is 0.6-2 cm, and they have a bright blue color. When they appear, they have a spherical shape, but as they mature become wider. Hats sticky and slimy-looking, especially in the rain. Ksantor elegant (Xanthoria elegans). This fungus grows on rocks, often near the bird perches or mink rodents. By the nature of this lichen. He became one of the first lichens used in the method of dating rock surfaces, known as lihenometriya. Growing at a rate of 0.5 mm per year during the first century, and then a little slow its growth. conical Morel (Morchella conica). Edible mushroom in the upper part resembling a honeycomb. It consists of a network of undulated strips with voids therebetween. Very appreciated by gourmets, especially in French cuisine. The fungus is very popular with mushroom hunters not only from a commercial point of view, but also because of the pleasant taste. agaric red (Amanita muscaria). All known amanita - poisonous and psychoactive basidiomycete fungus. It grows in the Northern Hemisphere, but also was introduced in the country of the southern hemisphere, first as a symbiont in the coniferous forests, and later as a full species. Red hat with white dots - who is not known mushroom? It is one of the most recognizable of fungi in the world. Although considered poisonous fly agaric, Amanita muscaria confirmed cases of poisoning is not, and in some parts of Europe, Asia and North America, and did eat him after blanching. Amanita has hallucinogenic properties, its main psychoactive component - is muscimol. Some peoples of Siberia are using it as an entheogen, and he has a great religious significance in these cultures.

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